Most foreign direct investment into Russia originates in the European Union:
European investors own between 55 percent and 75 percent of Russian FDI stock.
This points to a Russian dependence on European investment, making the EU paramount for Russian medium-term growth.
Even if we consider ‘phantom’ FDI that transits through Europe, the EU remains the primary investor in Russia.
Most phantom FDI into Russia is believed to originate from Russia itself and thus is by construction not foreign.
›A consensus is emerging on both sides of the Atlantic that the adoption of AI in defence is a vital security interest.
›Cooperation with the US on the digital modernisation of defence remains a strategic necessity for Europe. Nevertheless, a mix of new and pre-existing dynamics in the relationship risks the emergence of a transatlantic digital divide.
›Transatlantic AI technology and investment gaps can spill into the defence sector and erode military interoperability and deterrence.
›The EU-NATO framework may also come under pressure in the coming years to manage transatlantic differences over AI and data governance as well as diverging perceptions of the threat posed by China.